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All about tuberculosis tuberculosis transmission causes of tuberculosis risk factors for tuberculosis symptoms of tuberculosis diagnosis of tuberculosis treatment for tuberculosis prevention of tuberculosis

How to prevent tuberculosis?

Preventive measures include strict standards for ventilation, air filtration, and isolation methods in hospitals, medical and dental offices, nursing homes, and prisons. If someone is believed to have been in contact with another person who has TB, preventive antibiotic treatment may have to be given. Infected persons need to be identified as soon as possible so that they

can be isolated from others and treated.

In both human and economic terms, the prevention of tuberculosis is preferable to treatment, which highlights the importance of developing of a safe and effective vaccine. The Bacillus Camille Guerin vaccine is useful in preventing certain types of tuberculosis, although its efficacy is variable. No vaccine yet exists that is truly effective against adult forms of the disease. Therefore, it will be important to identify the immune mechanisms and antigens necessary to protect against tuberculosis infection to make a significant, worldwide impact on the disease.

Many countries use BCG vaccine as part of their tuberculosis control programs, especially for infants. The protective efficacy of BCG for preventing serious forms of tuberculosis (e.g. meningitis) in children is high (greater than 80 percent). However, the protective efficacy for preventing pulmonary tuberculosis in adolescents and adults is variable, from 0 to 80 percent. Vaccination with BCG does not prevent infection by M. tuberculosis but it does strengthen the immune system of first-time tuberculosis patients. As a result, serious complications are less likely to develop. BCG is used more widely in developing countries than in the United States. The effectiveness of vaccination is still being studied; it is not clear whether the vaccine's effectiveness depends on the population in which it is used or on variations in its formulation.

More information on tuberculosis

What is tuberculosis? - Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, wasting disease characterized by the coughing up of mucus and sputum, fever, weight loss, and chest pain.
How is tuberculosis transmitted? - Tuberculosis is spread through air droplets which are expelled when persons with infectious TB disease cough, sneeze, speak, or sing.
What causes tuberculosis? - Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Transmission occurs only from persons with active TB disease.
What're the risk factors for tuberculosis? - Tuberculosis is more common in elderly persons. The risk of tuberculosis increases when the immune system is unhealthy.
What are the symptoms of tuberculosis? - Symptoms of tuberculosis include cough, sputum, bleeding from the lungs, fever, night sweats, loss of weight, and weakness.
How is tuberculosis diagnosed? - Diagnosis of tuberculosis includes a medical history, a physical examination, a tuberculin skin test, a chest X-ray, and microbiologic smears and cultures.
What's the treatment for tuberculosis? - Directly observed treatment is effective in eliminating the problem of noncompliance. Surgical treatment of tuberculosis may be used if medications are ineffective.
How to prevent tuberculosis? - Preventive measures for tuberculosis include strict standards for ventilation, air filtration, and isolation methods. Preventive antibiotic treatment may have to be given.
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