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All about pneumonia types of pneumonia walking pneumonia aspiration pneumonia bacterial pneumonia viral pneumonia bronchial pneumonia community-acquired pneumonia hospital-acquired pneumonia atypical pneumonia causes of pneumonia risk factors for pneumonia complications of pneumonia symptoms of pneumonia diagnosis of pneumonia treatment for pneumonia prevention of pneumonia

What're the complications of pneumonia?

Complications of pneumonia that may occur include buildup of fluid in the space between the lung and chest wall (pleural effusion), pockets of pus that form in the space between the lung and chest wall (empyema) or in the lung itself (lung abscess), secondary bacterial lung infection after a viral infection, secondary infection, such as a vaginal infection or infections of the digestive system, because of antibiotic therapy, bacteria in the bloodstream (bacteremia) or throughout the

body (septicemia), infection caused by swelling of the covering of the spinal cord (meningitis), infection of a joint caused by spread of bacteria through the bloodstream (septic arthritis), and infection of the heart muscle or the sac surrounding the heart (endocarditis or pericarditis).

Abscesses in the lung are thick-walled, pus-filled cavities that are formed when infection has destroyed lung tissue. They are frequently a result of aspiration pneumonia if a mixture of organisms is carried into the lung. Abscesses can cause hemorrhage (bleeding) in the lung if untreated, but antibiotics that target them have significantly reduced their danger. Abscesses are more common with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae, and uncommon with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Respiratory failure is one of the important causes of death in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the specific condition that occurs when the lungs are unable to function and oxygen is so severely reduced that the patient's life is at risk. Failure can occur if pneumonia leads to mechanical changes in the lungs (called ventilatory failure) or oxygen loss in the arteries (called hypoxemic respiratory failure). Bacteremia (bacteria in the blood) is the most common complication of pneumococcus infection, but rarely does this infection spread to other sites. Bacteremia is also a frequent complication of infection with other gram-negative organisms, including Haemophilus influenzae. In some cases, air may fill up the area between the pleural membranes causing the lungs to collapse, a condition called pneumothorax. It can be a complication of pneumonia (particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae) or of some of the invasive procedures used to treat pleural effusion. In rare cases, infection may spread from the lungs to the heart and can even spread throughout the body, sometimes causing abscesses in the brain and other organs. Severe hemoptysis (coughing up blood) is another potentially serious complication of pneumonia, particularly in patients with other lung problems such as cystic fibrosis.

More information on pneumonia

What is pneumonia? - Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by infection with bacteria, viruses, or other organisms.
What types of pneumonia are there? - Types of pneumonia are bacterial pneumonia, viral pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, aspiration (or inhalation) pneumonia.
What is walking pneumonia? - Walking pneumonia is pneumonia that is usually mild enough that the child does not have to stay in bed.
What is aspiration pneumonia? - Aspiration pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs and bronchial tubes caused by inhaling foreign material.
What is bacterial pneumonia? - Bacterial pneumonia is pneumonia caused by bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia.
What is viral pneumonia? - Viral pneumonia is caused by various viruses. Viral pneumonia is usually milder than bacterial pneumonia.
What is bronchial pneumonia? - Bronchial pneumonia is when the pneumonia spreads to several patches in one or both lungs.
What is community-acquired pneumonia? - Community-acquired pneumonia occurs most commonly in very young and very old people.
What is hospital-acquired pneumonia? - Hospital-acquired pneumonia, also called nosocomial pneumonia, is an infection that patients get while they're in the hospital.
What is atypical pneumonia? - Atypical pneumonia is a pneumonia that does not respond to the usual antibiotic treatment.
What causes pneumonia? - Pneumonia is caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites or other organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae.
What're the risk factors for pneumonia? - Alcohol or drug abuse is strongly associated with pneumonia. The elderly and infants and young children are at greater risk of pneumonia.
What're the complications of pneumonia? - Complications of pneumonia that may occur include buildup of fluid in the space between the lung and chest wall.
What are the symptoms of pneumonia? - Symptoms of pneumonia are shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing, shallow, and fever and chills.
How is pneumonia diagnosed? - The diagnosis of pneumonia is usually made from a medical history, a physical examination, and a chest X-ray.
What's the treatment for pneumonia? - Treatment of pneumonia consists of respiratory support, including O2 if indicated, and antibiotics.
How to prevent pneumonia? - Vaccines are available to protect against pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumonia caused by the bacterium.
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